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2023 What is a blockchain oracle? Benefits and Issues

What is a blockchain oracle? How do blockchain oracles work? What are the benefits? What are known issues with them? Learn everything important

What is a blockchain oracle?

Blockchain oracles are services that function as bridges between blockchains and the real world, enabling smart contracts to access data sources outside their native networks. In other words, they act as a link between on-chain applications and off-chain data.

As such, off-chain events can be conveyed into on-chain ones recognized by smart contracts. This information can be anything, from token or stock prices to the results of a football game, or a weather forecast.

Blockchain oracles can also verify if data is accurate, though they are not the data source itself. Instead, they are akin to an additional layer that collects and authenticates information and transmits it to the correct destination.

Blockchain oracles also allow people to use blockchains in contractual agreements. For example, you and your friend could bet on a football game in this way: firstly, both of you agree on terms and lock your funds in a smart contract. Secondly, the blockchain oracle will inform the smart contract of the game’s result. Finally, after the game ends, the smart contract will release the funds to the winner of the bet.

There are different types of blockchain oracles, and one oracle can fall into multiple categories: software, centralized, decentralized, inbound, and outbound oracles. Essentially, how a blockchain oracle operates depends on the purpose for which it was built.

Blockchains would have less potential and fewer possibilities for mass adoption without oracles, as their information would be limited to their internal data. While blockchain oracles don’t solve the problem of data availability, they can make available off-chain data on-chain using external sources.

Blockchain oracle, crypto oracle visual source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-role-of-oracles-in-blockchain-ecosystems_fig1_341174793
Blockchain oracle, crypto oracle visual source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-role-of-oracles-in-blockchain-ecosystems_fig1_341174793

Where are blockchain oracles used?

Blockchain oracles are an essential component of many decentralized applications (dApps) that operate on blockchain networks. They are responsible for providing external data to smart contracts and enabling them to interact with the real world. In this article, we’ll explain what blockchain oracles are, how they work, and why they are important for the development of dApps.

So, what exactly is a blockchain oracle? At its most basic level, a blockchain oracle is a software that acts as a bridge between a blockchain and external data sources. It retrieves data from these sources and feeds it to smart contracts on the blockchain, allowing them to execute their predetermined functions.

Blockchain oracle real life example

For example, consider a smart contract that is designed to execute a financial transaction based on the outcome of a sporting event. The contract could be programmed to release funds to one party if a certain team wins and to the other party if the team loses. In this case, the blockchain oracle would be responsible for providing the contract with the results of the sporting event, allowing it to execute the appropriate function.

Blockchain oracles come in different types, including software, hardware, and human oracles. Software oracles are programs that fetch data from external sources and feed it to the smart contract. Hardware oracles, on the other hand, are physical devices that are connected to the internet and can retrieve data from external sources. Human oracles, as the name suggests, are individuals who manually provide data to the smart contract.

Key benefits of blockchain oracles

One of the key benefits of blockchain oracles is that they allow smart contracts to interact with the real world and access external data. Without oracles, smart contracts would be limited to the data that is stored on the blockchain itself, which is usually insufficient for complex applications. Oracles enable smart contracts to access a wide range of data, including financial data, sporting event results, weather information, and more.

Another advantage of blockchain oracles is that they can help to increase the security and reliability of smart contracts. Since oracles retrieve data from external sources, they can provide an additional layer of verification for the data that is fed to the smart contract. This helps to ensure that the contract executes its functions accurately and reduces the risk of errors or fraud.

Challenges with blockchain oracles

There are, however, some potential challenges with using blockchain oracles. One concern is that oracles may not always provide accurate or reliable data. If an oracle provides incorrect data to a smart contract, it could lead to incorrect execution of the contract’s functions, resulting in financial losses or other negative consequences. To mitigate this risk, it’s important to use trustworthy oracles and to have robust processes in place to verify the accuracy of the data they provide.

Another issue is that oracles may be subject to censorship or manipulation. For example, if an oracle is controlled by a single entity, that entity may be able to manipulate the data that is provided to the smart contract. This could result in the contract executing functions that are not in line with its intended purpose. To address this problem, it’s essential to use decentralized oracles that are not controlled by a single entity and are resistant to censorship.


In conclusion, blockchain oracles are a critical component of decentralized applications that operate on blockchain networks. They allow smart contracts to interact with the real world and access external data, which is essential for the development of complex dApps. While there are some potential challenges with using oracles, they offer numerous benefits and are likely to play a significant role in the future of blockchain technology.

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